C40: Greek partial evergreen scrub (Daphne oleoides, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Berberis cretica, Buxus sempervirens) in combination with Juniperus foetidissima-forests

CountryGreece
Province north Pindos, Olymp
References

Horvat, Glavač & Ellenberg 1974; Lakušić 1966; Lakušić 1968; Lakušić 1970; Quézel 1964; Quézel 1967a

Remarks

CONIF
BLD
BLE
SCL
LEG
ZONPALM
ARBFERN
D-HERB
M-HERB
AZONAL WOODY
AZONAL NON-WOODY
AQUATIC
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
Sum of taxa
CONIF
3.00
BLD
1.20
BLE
1.50
SCL
1.90
LEG
0.40
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
7.00
M-HERB
2.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
Percentage of zonal taxa
CONIF
17.65
BLD
7.06
BLE
8.82
SCL
11.18
LEG
2.35
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
41.18
M-HERB
11.76
Percentage of zonal woody angiosperms
BLD
24.00
BLE
30.00
SCL
38.00
LEG
8.00
ZONPALM
0.00
Sum of all taxa17.00
Sum of zonal taxa17.00
Sum of zonal woody angiosperms5.00
Sum of % SCL + LEG46.00
Sum of % D-HERB + M-HERB (ZONAL HERB)52.94

Vegetation types

No vegetation types.

EuroVegMap information

Title

Greek partial evergreen scrub (Daphne oleoides, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Berberis cretica, Buxus sempervirens) in combination with Juniperus foetidissima-forests

Geographical distribution

Country/territory
Greece: north Pindos, Olymp
area covered
150 km²
area frequency
2 polygons.

Scientific names of main plant communities and their most common synonyms (with author citation)

Daphneion oleoidis Lakušić 1979 (4 ass.), Juniperion excelsae-foetidissimae Em 1985: Juniperetum foetidissimae subalpinum Lakušić 1985, Bruckenthalion spiculifoliae Horvat 1949 em. Lakušić 1966 (4 ass.); no syntaxa names published in Greece.

Structural feature of the main community(ies) (layers, life-forms, etc.)

Low to three-layered scrub (up to 1.5 m high); sometimes 5-8 m high open Juniperus foetidissima forests.

Dominant and most frequent species in different layers

Tree layer
Juniperus foetidissima (locally)
Shrub layer
J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus communis subsp. alpina, Buxus sempervirens, Berberis cretica, Daphne oleoides, Crataegus orientalis
Lianas
---
Herb layer
Eryngium amethystinum, Campanula spatulata subsp. spatulata, Astragalus angustifolius, Acantholimon echinus, Morina persica, Stipa pulcherrima, Sesleria coerulans, Festuca varia agg., Asyneuma limonifolium, Cerastium candidissimum
Moss layer (incl. lichens)
No details

Diagnostically important species

Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Daphne oleoides, Prunus cocomilia, Berberis cretica; Astragalus creticus, Astragalus thracicus subsp. cylleneus, Astragalus lacteus, Marrubium cylleneum, Marrubium velutinum, Cirsium hypopsilum, Campanula spatulata subsp. spatulata, Globularia stygia

Ecological variants

---

Geographical variants (geogr. differential species)

This vegetation is distributed in the north-west up to the Biokova, Orjen and Prokletije mountains, in each case in unique associations, and on the other side to the Pindus mountains and Mt. Olympus in Thessalonia.

Natural accompanying vegetation (most important units in complex with the name giving mapping unit, scientific names)

Mediterranean high-mountain vegetation (Eryngio bromion, Astragalo-Seslerion, Drypetalia spinosi); altimontane Pinus heldreichii forests, open Juniperus foetidissima forests.

Adjoining climax and permanent vegetation (with numbers of mapping units)

alpine grasslands (B55), species-rich beech and mixed beech forests (F155, F156), Balkan oak forests (G26), black pine forests (K15).

Land use, substitute communities

forestry (substitute communities, plantations of economic tree-species, scrub)
---
grassland (meadows, pastures, herb-rich communities)
Few profitable summer pasture grounds for sheep, grazed areas are enriched with shrub species such as Berberis and Buxus.
arable land (characteristic weed communities)
---
settlements (typical ruderal vegetation)
---

Site conditions of the mapping unit

Landscape type, geomorphology
subalpine peak areas, slope sites, steep ledges; primarily S, SW and SE exposures, very variable slope inclinations
Altitudinal belt and/or altitudinal range
altimontane-subalpine; 1500-1800 m
Geology (bedrock)
carbonate (Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic) and siliceous rock , basic rocks: ophiolite (Tertiary).
Soil conditions
soil type, also the depth of fine textured earth (soil), stone content; (international nomenclature)
raw soil, AC soils, brown loams; often stone-rich; (calcaric regosols; chromic luvisols; calcaric leptosols).
soil texture
grouany, stony
soil moisture, water balance
fresh, dry
soil reaction
weakly acidic, neutral
soil fertility
oligotrophic to mesotrophic
Climate incl. local climate
climate type (following Walter & Lieth)
IV(VI)
average annual temperature
4-8 °C
average annual precipitation
400-600 mm
average temperature of the warmest month
14-16 °C
average temperature of the coldest month
-2 to 2 °C
local climate or other climatic peculiarities
snow-rich, summer-dry (Mediterranean climate of high altitudes).

Importance for nature protection

Present state and development trend of natural vegetation (degree of endangerment)
Many endemic species and tertiary relicts; potentially endangered by grazing and erosion.
endangered communities, species worthy of protection in natural vegetation
Endemic species and tertiary relicts are worthy of protection.
causes of endangerment
Erosion, grazing.
required measures for protection and restitution
Controlled grazing.

Localities of representative stands (loci typici) with state of protection

of the natural vegetation
Mountains in Greece: north Pindos (Katara, Zigos, Milea, Smolikas), Olymp.
of characteristic substitute communities worthy of protection
---

Most important references (author, year)

Horvat, Glavač & Ellenberg 1974; Lakušić 1966; Lakušić 1968; Lakušić 1970; Quézel 1964; Quézel 1967a

Compiled by

Th. Raus and E. Bergmeier

Taxons

Taxon
CONIF
BLD
BLE
SCL
LEG
ZONPALM
ARBFERN
D-HERB
M-HERB
AZONAL WOODY
AZONAL NON-WOODY
AQUATIC
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.20
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.40
LEG
0.40
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.70
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.60
M-HERB
0.40
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.50
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.50
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.50
SCL
0.50
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.40
M-HERB
0.60
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
1.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.50
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.50
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
1.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
1.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
1.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
1.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
1.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
1.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.70
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.80
M-HERB
0.20
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.80
M-HERB
0.20
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00