Greek partial evergreen scrub (Daphne oleoides, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Berberis cretica, Buxus sempervirens) in combination with Juniperus foetidissima-forests
Greece: north Pindos, Olymp
Scientific names of main plant communities and their most common synonyms (with author citation)
Daphneion oleoidis Lakušić 1979 (4 ass.), Juniperion excelsae-foetidissimae Em 1985: Juniperetum foetidissimae subalpinum Lakušić 1985, Bruckenthalion spiculifoliae Horvat 1949 em. Lakušić 1966 (4 ass.); no syntaxa names published in Greece.
Structural feature of the main community(ies) (layers, life-forms, etc.)
Low to three-layered scrub (up to 1.5 m high); sometimes 5-8 m high open Juniperus foetidissima forests.
Dominant and most frequent species in different layers
Juniperus foetidissima (locally)
J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus communis subsp. alpina, Buxus sempervirens, Berberis cretica, Daphne oleoides, Crataegus orientalis
Eryngium amethystinum, Campanula spatulata subsp. spatulata, Astragalus angustifolius, Acantholimon echinus, Morina persica, Stipa pulcherrima, Sesleria coerulans, Festuca varia agg., Asyneuma limonifolium, Cerastium candidissimum
Moss layer (incl. lichens)
Diagnostically important species
Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Daphne oleoides, Prunus cocomilia, Berberis cretica; Astragalus creticus, Astragalus thracicus subsp. cylleneus, Astragalus lacteus, Marrubium cylleneum, Marrubium velutinum, Cirsium hypopsilum, Campanula spatulata subsp. spatulata, Globularia stygia
Geographical variants (geogr. differential species)
This vegetation is distributed in the north-west up to the Biokova, Orjen and Prokletije mountains, in each case in unique associations, and on the other side to the Pindus mountains and Mt. Olympus in Thessalonia.
Natural accompanying vegetation (most important units in complex with the name giving mapping unit, scientific names)
Mediterranean high-mountain vegetation (Eryngio bromion, Astragalo-Seslerion, Drypetalia spinosi); altimontane Pinus heldreichii forests, open Juniperus foetidissima forests.
Adjoining climax and permanent vegetation (with numbers of mapping units)
alpine grasslands (B55), species-rich beech and mixed beech forests (F155, F156), Balkan oak forests (G26), black pine forests (K15).
Land use, substitute communities
forestry (substitute communities, plantations of economic tree-species, scrub)
grassland (meadows, pastures, herb-rich communities)
Few profitable summer pasture grounds for sheep, grazed areas are enriched with shrub species such as Berberis and Buxus.
arable land (characteristic weed communities)
settlements (typical ruderal vegetation)
Site conditions of the mapping unit
Landscape type, geomorphology
subalpine peak areas, slope sites, steep ledges; primarily S, SW and SE exposures, very variable slope inclinations
Altitudinal belt and/or altitudinal range
altimontane-subalpine; 1500-1800 m
carbonate (Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic) and siliceous rock , basic rocks: ophiolite (Tertiary).
soil type, also the depth of fine textured earth (soil), stone content; (international nomenclature)
raw soil, AC soils, brown loams; often stone-rich; (calcaric regosols; chromic luvisols; calcaric leptosols).
soil moisture, water balance
weakly acidic, neutral
oligotrophic to mesotrophic
Climate incl. local climate
climate type (following Walter & Lieth)
average annual temperature
average annual precipitation
average temperature of the warmest month
average temperature of the coldest month
-2 to 2 °C
local climate or other climatic peculiarities
snow-rich, summer-dry (Mediterranean climate of high altitudes).
Importance for nature protection
Present state and development trend of natural vegetation (degree of endangerment)
Many endemic species and tertiary relicts; potentially endangered by grazing and erosion.
endangered communities, species worthy of protection in natural vegetation
Endemic species and tertiary relicts are worthy of protection.
causes of endangerment
required measures for protection and restitution
Localities of representative stands (loci typici) with state of protection
of the natural vegetation
Mountains in Greece: north Pindos (Katara, Zigos, Milea, Smolikas), Olymp.
of characteristic substitute communities worthy of protection
Most important references (author, year)
Horvat, Glavač & Ellenberg 1974; Lakušić 1966; Lakušić 1968; Lakušić 1970; Quézel 1964; Quézel 1967a
Th. Raus and E. Bergmeier