Albanian Balkan pine forests (Pinus peuce) with Sorbus aria, Daphne oleoides, Rhamnus saxatilis, Globularia cordifolia, Thymus boissieri on serpentine rocks
North Albania: M. Allaman; Yugoslavia (Montenegro): Prokletije mountains
Scientific names of main plant communities and their most common synonyms (with author citation)
Pinetum peucis Janković 1959° or/and Pineteum peucis montenegrinum Blečić & Tatić 1957°
Structural feature of the main community(ies) (layers, life-forms, etc.)
In the tree layer Pinus peuce dominates. The shrub layer is sparsely developed. The herb layer contains several dwarf shrubs; the more frequent herbaceous plants are acid indicators such as Sesleria coerulans, Festucopsis serpentini, Minuartia baldaccii, Trifolium pilczii, Cardamine plumieri etc. This plant community is developed mainly at steep slopes with a loose tree stand.
Dominant and most frequent species in different layers
Pinus peuce, isolated admixed Pinus heldreichii, Fagus sylvatica
Daphne oleoides, Daphne blagayana, Sorbus aria, Genista hassertiana, Rhamnus saxatilis
Erica carnea, Vaccinium myrtillus, Globularia cordifolia, Minuartia baldaccii, Thymus boissieri, Sesleria coerulans, Festucopsis serpentini, Narthecium scardicum, Lilium albanicum, Alyssum bertolonii subsp. scutarinum
Moss layer (incl. lichens)
Diagnostically important species
Pinus peuce; Daphne blagayana, Daphne oleoides, Rhamnus saxatilis; Festucopsis serpentini, Sesleria coerulans, Alyssum bertolonii subsp. scutarinum, Thymus boissieri, Minuartia baldaccii
Geographical variants (geogr. differential species)
Natural accompanying vegetation (most important units in complex with the name giving mapping unit, scientific names)
Pinus heldreichii forests.
Adjoining climax and permanent vegetation (with numbers of mapping units)
alpine grasslands (B54, B55), subalpine krummholz scrubs (C38, C39), species-poor beech forests (F89), species-rich fir-beech forests (F143), pine forests (K6, K7).
Land use, substitute communities
forestry (substitute communities, plantations of economic tree-species, scrub)
grassland (meadows, pastures, herb-rich communities)
arable land (characteristic weed communities)
settlements (typical ruderal vegetation)
Site conditions of the mapping unit
Landscape type, geomorphology
High-mountain regions, rocky, very steep slopes
Altitudinal belt and/or altitudinal range
altimontane to subalpine; 1700-2200 m
siliceous rock (serpentine)
soil type, also the depth of fine textured earth (soil), stone content; (international nomenclature)
ranker, mountain brown soils; (leptosols; dystric cambisols)
rocky, stony; loamy
soil moisture, water balance
strongly to moderately acidic
Climate incl. local climate
climate type (following Walter & Lieth)
average annual temperature
average annual precipitation
to 1700 mm
average temperature of the warmest month
average temperature of the coldest month
-1 to 3 °C
local climate or other climatic peculiarities
Importance for nature protection
Present state and development trend of natural vegetation (degree of endangerment)
These forests have been severely cleared and decimated.
endangered communities, species worthy of protection in natural vegetation
very small, isolated and endangered communities with locally endemic species, most worthy of protection.
causes of endangerment
Pasturing, timber exploitation, natural fires.
required measures for protection and restitution
Semi-natural stands should be strictly protected.
Localities of representative stands (loci typici) with state of protection
of the natural vegetation
Albania: M. Allaman; Yugoslavia (Montenegro): Prokletije-Mountains.
of characteristic substitute communities worthy of protection
Most important references (author, year)