F3: British hygrophilous oak forests (Quercus petraea, Quercus robur) with Molinia caerulea, alternating with birch carrs (Betula pubescens) with Myrica gale, Erica tetralix, Narthecium ossifragum and valley bogs

CountryUnited Kingdom
Province North Yorkshire Moors, south England
References

Bellamy & Rose 1961; Birse 1980; Birse 1984; Daniels 1978; Gimingham 1964a; Ivimey-Cook & Proctor 1966; Ivimey-Cook, Proctor & Rowland 1975; McVean 1956; Newbould 1960; Poore 1956; Rankin 1911a; Rodwell (Ed.) 1991a; Rodwell (Ed.) 1991b; Rose 1953; Rutter 1955; Tansley (Ed.) 1911; Wheeler 1980b; Williams & Lambert 1959

Remarks

CONIF
BLD
BLE
SCL
LEG
ZONPALM
ARBFERN
D-HERB
M-HERB
AZONAL WOODY
AZONAL NON-WOODY
AQUATIC
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
Sum of taxa
CONIF
0.00
BLD
6.20
BLE
1.10
SCL
1.50
LEG
0.70
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
2.23
M-HERB
5.13
AZONAL WOODY
1.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
8.14
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
Percentage of zonal taxa
CONIF
0.00
BLD
36.77
BLE
6.52
SCL
8.90
LEG
4.15
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
13.23
M-HERB
30.43
Percentage of zonal woody angiosperms
BLD
65.26
BLE
11.58
SCL
15.79
LEG
7.37
ZONPALM
0.00
Sum of all taxa26.00
Sum of zonal taxa16.86
Sum of zonal woody angiosperms9.50
Sum of % SCL + LEG23.16
Sum of % D-HERB + M-HERB (ZONAL HERB)43.65

Vegetation types

No vegetation types.

EuroVegMap information

Title

British hygrophilous oak forests (Quercus petraea, Quercus robur) with Molinia caerulea, alternating with birch carrs (Betula pubescens) with Myrica gale, Erica tetralix, Narthecium ossifragum and valley bogs

Geographical distribution

Country/territory
Great Britain: North Yorkshire Moors, south England
area covered
3790 km²
area frequency
13 polygons.

Scientific names of main plant communities and their most common synonyms (with author citation)

W4 Betula pubescens-Molinia caerulea woodland (Rodwell 1991a); W16 Quercus-Betula-Deschampsia woodland, moist formations (Rodwell 1991a); W17 Quercus petraea-Betula pubescens-Dicranum majus woodland (Rodwell 1991a); M16 Erica tetralix-Sphagnum compactum wet heath (Rodwell 1991b); M21 Narthecium ossifragum-Sphagnum papillosum valley bog (Rodwell 1991b).

Structural feature of the main community(ies) (layers, life-forms, etc.)

Mosaic of hygrophilous oak forests (Quercus petraea, Quercus robur on heavier soils) and birch carrs (Betula pubescens on wetter, Betula pendula on dry sites). Locally a shrub layer of Salix cinerea, Sorbus aucuparia and Ilex aquifolium. Depending on soil humidity, base and nutrient deficiency, and water balance the herb layer may be dominated by Ericaceae species, grasses, rushes or mosses. Wet heaths and fens on acidic and water-logged sites are characterised by Ericaceae, sedges and sphagnum mosses.

Dominant and most frequent species in different layers

Tree layer
Quercus petraea, Quercus robur, Betula pubescens, Betula pendula
Shrub layer
Salix cinerea, Sorbus aucuparia, Ilex aquifolium, Myrica gale
Lianas
Rubus fruticosus agg.
Herb layer
Molinia caerulea, Deschampsia flexuosa, Calluna vulgaris, Potentilla erecta, Dryopteris dilatata, Holcus mollis; on wet locations: Erica tetralix, Narthecium ossifragum, Eriophorum angustifolium, Eriophorum vaginatum, Drosera rotundifolia, Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Viola palustris, Carex nigra, Juncus effusus, Juncus acutiflorus, Cirsium palustre
Moss layer (incl. lichens)
Pohlia nutans, Scleropodium purum, Mnium hornum, Eurhynchium praelongum; on wet locations: Aulacomnium palustre, Sphagnum fallax, Sphagnum papillosum, Sphagnum palustre, Sphagnum fimbriatum, Sphagnum denticulatum, Sphagnum cuspidatum, Sphagnum subnitens, Sphagnum compactum

Diagnostically important species

Quercus petraea, Quercus robur, Betula pubescens; Myrica gale; Molinia caerulea, Erica tetralix, Dryopteris carthusiana, Narthecium ossifragum; Sphagnum papillosum, Sphagnum compactum, Sphagnum subnitens, Sphagnum fimbriatum

Ecological variants

No details

Geographical variants (geogr. differential species)

No details

Natural accompanying vegetation (most important units in complex with the name giving mapping unit, scientific names)

In acidic and very wet areas heath and valley mires occur in addition to birch carrs (cf. point 'stand structure'); Caricion nigrae small sedge swamps.

Adjoining climax and permanent vegetation (with numbers of mapping units)

coastal heaths (E11), mixed oak-ash forests (F31, F32), species-rich beech forests (F104, F105), dune vegetation (P6), salt vegetation (P23), alluvial forests (U7).

Land use, substitute communities

forestry (substitute communities, plantations of economic tree-species, scrub)
Extensive conifer forestry, the seedlings of which also extend to the non-afforested areas of the heaths.
grassland (meadows, pastures, herb-rich communities)
Extensive sheep pastures with Nardo-Galion and Thero-Airion grassland; also Ulex and Vaccinium heaths. In the North Yorkshire Moors the occurrences of this unit are repeatedly burned off for grouse shooting in order to support the regeneration of heath and to prevent the growth of trees.
arable land (characteristic weed communities)
---
settlements (typical ruderal vegetation)
---

Site conditions of the mapping unit

Landscape type, geomorphology
Coastal lowlands and low, shallow-undulating hilly country
Altitudinal belt and/or altitudinal range
lowland to colline
Geology (bedrock)
base-poor rocks: slate, sandstone, granite, gneiss; peat; (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Permian, Devonian, Carboniferous)
Soil conditions
soil type, also the depth of fine textured earth (soil), stone content; (international nomenclature)
gleyed podzoles and fens; (humic gleysols; orthic and gleyic podzols; dystric histosols)
soil texture
sandy, silty; fen peat
soil moisture, water balance
stagnating moist to wet
soil reaction
strongly acidic to acidic
soil fertility
oligotrophic
Climate incl. local climate
climate type (following Walter & Lieth)
V(IV), V(VI)2, VI2, VI(V)2, VI(X)
average annual temperature
9-12 EC
average annual precipitation
800-1600 mm
average temperature of the warmest month
July 18-20 EC
average temperature of the coldest month
February 3-6 EC
local climate or other climatic peculiarities
120-180 days of rain per year; mostly free of frosts.

Importance for nature protection

Present state and development trend of natural vegetation (degree of endangerment)
Mainly degraded to heaths or coniferous plantations, protected only occasionally as semi-natural stands.
endangered communities, species worthy of protection in natural vegetation
Bogs, Ulicion and Ericion tetralicis heaths and nearly natural forests are especially worthy of protection due to the occurrence of Dryopteris cristata, Erica ciliaris, Gentiana pneumonanthe, Lycopodiella inundata, Rhynchospora fusca, Agrostis curtisii, Hammarbya paludosa.
causes of endangerment
Drainage, burning off, grazing, afforestation, recreational use.
required measures for protection and restitution
Control and restriction of agricultural use, afforestation and recreational use.

Localities of representative stands (loci typici) with state of protection

of the natural vegetation
Great Britain: Thursley Warren, New Forest, Dorset heaths, Devonian Commons, Bodmin Moor and Exmoor.
of characteristic substitute communities worthy of protection
Included in regions mentioned above.

Most important references (author, year)

Bellamy & Rose 1961; Birse 1980; Birse 1984; Daniels 1978; Gimingham 1964a; Ivimey-Cook & Proctor 1966; Ivimey-Cook, Proctor & Rowland 1975; McVean 1956; Newbould 1960; Poore 1956; Rankin 1911a; Rodwell (Ed.) 1991a; Rodwell (Ed.) 1991b; Rose 1953; Rutter 1955; Tansley (Ed.) 1911; Wheeler 1980b; Williams & Lambert 1959

Compiled by

J.S. Rodwell; revised by J.R. Cross and J. Pallas

Taxons

Taxon
CONIF
BLD
BLE
SCL
LEG
ZONPALM
ARBFERN
D-HERB
M-HERB
AZONAL WOODY
AZONAL NON-WOODY
AQUATIC
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.50
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.50
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
1.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.50
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.50
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.20
M-HERB
0.50
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.30
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
1.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.70
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
1.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
1.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.60
SCL
0.20
LEG
0.20
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.20
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.80
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.20
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.80
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.40
M-HERB
0.60
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.20
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.80
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
1.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.50
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.50
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.33
M-HERB
0.33
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.34
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
1.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.50
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.50
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.20
M-HERB
0.20
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.60
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.40
M-HERB
0.60
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
1.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
1.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
1.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.50
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.50
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.70
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.30
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.50
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.50
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00