Crimean colline-submontane open juniper woodlands (Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus foetidissima), partly alternating with downy oak (Quercus pubescens) and open Pistacia mutica-woodlands
Ukraine: southern Crimea
Scientific names of main plant communities and their most common synonyms (with author citation)
Jasmino-Juniperion excelsae Diduch, Vakarenko & Šeljag-Sosonko 1986 (syn.: Junipero excelsae-Quercion pubescentis Jakucs 1961).
Structural feature of the main community(ies) (layers, life-forms, etc.)
Open forests with 3-15 m tall trees and 60-300 year old stands; arranged in 2-3 sublayers. Shrub layer sometimes dense, sometimes absent. In the herb layer there are sub-Mediterranean or steppe xerophytes and petrophytes.
Dominant and most frequent species in different layers
Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus foetidissima, Quercus pubescens, Pistacia mutica, Arbutus andrachne
Jasminum fruticans, Juniperus oxycedrus, Paliurus spina-christi, Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus, Cotinus coggygria
Stipa bromoides, Elymus nodosus, Agropyron cristatum, Poa sterilis, Brachypodium pinnatum subsp. rupestre, Teucrium capitatum, Scilla autumnalis, Fibigia clypeata among others
Moss layer (incl. lichens)
Diagnostically important species
Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus foetidissima
Geographical variants (geogr. differential species)
Fragmentary in the lower belts of the slopes of the Crimean mountains and the Caucasus (distributed from the seacoast to about 450 m); on the Crimean peninsula the proportion of steppe elements compared to Mediterranean species increases from west to east; in Transcaucasia, the reverse situation applies.
Natural accompanying vegetation (most important units in complex with the name giving mapping unit, scientific names)
evergreen Arbutus andrachne communities (southern part of the Crimean peninsula), Pinus pityusa communities.
Adjoining climax and permanent vegetation (with numbers of mapping units)
species-rich beech forests (F157), hornbeam-oak forests (F167), Oriental hornbeam-downy oak forests (G61), black pine forests (K20).
Land use, substitute communities
forestry (substitute communities, plantations of economic tree-species, scrub)
Jasminum fruticans, Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus and Paliurus spina christi scrub after deforestation.
grassland (meadows, pastures, herb-rich communities)
Grassland communities with Poa sterilis, Festuca callieri, Aegilops cylindrica amongst other species.
arable land (characteristic weed communities)
settlements (typical ruderal vegetation)
Site conditions of the mapping unit
Landscape type, geomorphology
lower vegetation belt of mountain slopes, from the seacoast to an altitude of 450 m
Altitudinal belt and/or altitudinal range
lowland, colline; up to 450 m
carbonate rocks, chalky clay, slate, volcanic substrates (Jurassic, Triassic)
soil type, also the depth of fine textured earth (soil), stone content; (international nomenclature)
extremely shallow cinnamonic soils; (calcaric lithic leptosols; chromic cambisols; chromic luvisols)
soil moisture, water balance
weakly acidic, neutral
Climate incl. local climate
climate type (following Walter & Lieth)
average annual temperature
average annual precipitation
average temperature of the warmest month
July 20-24 °C
average temperature of the coldest month
January 0-4 °C
local climate or other climatic peculiarities
Importance for nature protection
Present state and development trend of natural vegetation (degree of endangerment)
Characteristic communities, particularly 200-300 years old stands, are very valuable and especially worthy of protection since no regeneration occurs after deforestation.
endangered communities, species worthy of protection in natural vegetation
Natural forest communities are especially worthy of protection; numerous species worthy of protection: among others the endemic species of the Crimea and the west Caucasus: Pinus pityusa.
causes of endangerment
required measures for protection and restitution
Strict protection of the semi-natural remnants.
Localities of representative stands (loci typici) with state of protection
of the natural vegetation
Ukraine: southern part of the Crimea.
of characteristic substitute communities worthy of protection
Most important references (author, year)
Diduch, Vakarenko & Šeljag-Sosonko 1986; Šeljag-Sosonko & Diduch 1975; Maleev 1933
Z. Neuhäuslová based on documents by Ja.P. Diduch