K32: Crimean colline-submontane open juniper woodlands (Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus foetidissima), partly alternating with downy oak (Quercus pubescens) and open Pistacia mutica-woodlands

CountryUkraine
Province southern Crimea
References

Diduch, Vakarenko & Šeljag-Sosonko 1986; Šeljag-Sosonko & Diduch 1975; Maleev 1933

Remarks

CONIF
BLD
BLE
SCL
LEG
ZONPALM
ARBFERN
D-HERB
M-HERB
AZONAL WOODY
AZONAL NON-WOODY
AQUATIC
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
Sum of taxa
CONIF
3.00
BLD
2.40
BLE
1.00
SCL
3.00
LEG
0.20
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
6.10
M-HERB
1.90
AZONAL WOODY
0.40
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
Percentage of zonal taxa
CONIF
17.05
BLD
13.64
BLE
5.68
SCL
17.05
LEG
1.14
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
34.66
M-HERB
10.80
Percentage of zonal woody angiosperms
BLD
36.36
BLE
15.15
SCL
45.45
LEG
3.03
ZONPALM
0.00
Sum of all taxa18.00
Sum of zonal taxa17.60
Sum of zonal woody angiosperms6.60
Sum of % SCL + LEG48.48
Sum of % D-HERB + M-HERB (ZONAL HERB)45.45

Vegetation types

No vegetation types.

EuroVegMap information

Title

Crimean colline-submontane open juniper woodlands (Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus foetidissima), partly alternating with downy oak (Quercus pubescens) and open Pistacia mutica-woodlands

Geographical distribution

Country/territory
Ukraine: southern Crimea
area covered
160 km²
area frequency
4 polygons.

Scientific names of main plant communities and their most common synonyms (with author citation)

Jasmino-Juniperion excelsae Diduch, Vakarenko & Šeljag-Sosonko 1986 (syn.: Junipero excelsae-Quercion pubescentis Jakucs 1961).

Structural feature of the main community(ies) (layers, life-forms, etc.)

Open forests with 3-15 m tall trees and 60-300 year old stands; arranged in 2-3 sublayers. Shrub layer sometimes dense, sometimes absent. In the herb layer there are sub-Mediterranean or steppe xerophytes and petrophytes.

Dominant and most frequent species in different layers

Tree layer
Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus foetidissima, Quercus pubescens, Pistacia mutica, Arbutus andrachne
Shrub layer
Jasminum fruticans, Juniperus oxycedrus, Paliurus spina-christi, Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus, Cotinus coggygria
Lianas
---
Herb layer
Stipa bromoides, Elymus nodosus, Agropyron cristatum, Poa sterilis, Brachypodium pinnatum subsp. rupestre, Teucrium capitatum, Scilla autumnalis, Fibigia clypeata among others
Moss layer (incl. lichens)
No details

Diagnostically important species

Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus foetidissima

Ecological variants

---

Geographical variants (geogr. differential species)

Fragmentary in the lower belts of the slopes of the Crimean mountains and the Caucasus (distributed from the seacoast to about 450 m); on the Crimean peninsula the proportion of steppe elements compared to Mediterranean species increases from west to east; in Transcaucasia, the reverse situation applies.

Natural accompanying vegetation (most important units in complex with the name giving mapping unit, scientific names)

evergreen Arbutus andrachne communities (southern part of the Crimean peninsula), Pinus pityusa communities.

Adjoining climax and permanent vegetation (with numbers of mapping units)

species-rich beech forests (F157), hornbeam-oak forests (F167), Oriental hornbeam-downy oak forests (G61), black pine forests (K20).

Land use, substitute communities

forestry (substitute communities, plantations of economic tree-species, scrub)
Jasminum fruticans, Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus and Paliurus spina christi scrub after deforestation.
grassland (meadows, pastures, herb-rich communities)
Grassland communities with Poa sterilis, Festuca callieri, Aegilops cylindrica amongst other species.
arable land (characteristic weed communities)
---
settlements (typical ruderal vegetation)
---

Site conditions of the mapping unit

Landscape type, geomorphology
lower vegetation belt of mountain slopes, from the seacoast to an altitude of 450 m
Altitudinal belt and/or altitudinal range
lowland, colline; up to 450 m
Geology (bedrock)
carbonate rocks, chalky clay, slate, volcanic substrates (Jurassic, Triassic)
Soil conditions
soil type, also the depth of fine textured earth (soil), stone content; (international nomenclature)
extremely shallow cinnamonic soils; (calcaric lithic leptosols; chromic cambisols; chromic luvisols)
soil texture
stone-rich, loamy
soil moisture, water balance
dry
soil reaction
weakly acidic, neutral
soil fertility
oligo-mesotrophic
Climate incl. local climate
climate type (following Walter & Lieth)
IV(VI), X
average annual temperature
10-14 °C
average annual precipitation
300-600 mm
average temperature of the warmest month
July 20-24 °C
average temperature of the coldest month
January 0-4 °C
local climate or other climatic peculiarities
---

Importance for nature protection

Present state and development trend of natural vegetation (degree of endangerment)
Characteristic communities, particularly 200-300 years old stands, are very valuable and especially worthy of protection since no regeneration occurs after deforestation.
endangered communities, species worthy of protection in natural vegetation
Natural forest communities are especially worthy of protection; numerous species worthy of protection: among others the endemic species of the Crimea and the west Caucasus: Pinus pityusa.
causes of endangerment
deforestation.
required measures for protection and restitution
Strict protection of the semi-natural remnants.

Localities of representative stands (loci typici) with state of protection

of the natural vegetation
Ukraine: southern part of the Crimea.
of characteristic substitute communities worthy of protection
---

Most important references (author, year)

Diduch, Vakarenko & Šeljag-Sosonko 1986; Šeljag-Sosonko & Diduch 1975; Maleev 1933

Compiled by

Z. Neuhäuslová based on documents by Ja.P. Diduch

Taxons

Taxon
CONIF
BLD
BLE
SCL
LEG
ZONPALM
ARBFERN
D-HERB
M-HERB
AZONAL WOODY
AZONAL NON-WOODY
AQUATIC
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.80
M-HERB
0.20
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
1.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.40
M-HERB
0.60
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
1.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.40
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.40
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.20
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.90
M-HERB
0.10
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.80
M-HERB
0.20
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.30
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.50
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.20
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
1.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
1.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
1.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.50
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.50
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.40
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.40
LEG
0.20
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.40
M-HERB
0.60
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.80
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.20
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.90
M-HERB
0.10
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
1.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.90
M-HERB
0.10
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00