N6: East Transcaucasian thorn-cushion vegetation (Astragalus caucasicus, Astragalus microcephalus, Acantholimon lepturoides, Acantholimon fominii) and tomillares (Salvia garedji, Thymus tiflisiensis, Thymus karamarjanicus)

CountryGeorgia
Province sporadically in the southern part of the highlands Iori (Iori-Šeki); Azerbaijan
References

Grossgejm & Sachokia 1931; Kecchoveli 1960; Troickij 1930

Remarks

CONIF
BLD
BLE
SCL
LEG
ZONPALM
ARBFERN
D-HERB
M-HERB
AZONAL WOODY
AZONAL NON-WOODY
AQUATIC
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
Sum of taxa
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.90
BLE
0.00
SCL
4.50
LEG
0.60
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
15.80
M-HERB
10.70
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.50
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
Percentage of zonal taxa
CONIF
0.00
BLD
2.77
BLE
0.00
SCL
13.85
LEG
1.85
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
48.62
M-HERB
32.92
Percentage of zonal woody angiosperms
BLD
15.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
75.00
LEG
10.00
ZONPALM
0.00
Sum of all taxa33.00
Sum of zonal taxa32.50
Sum of zonal woody angiosperms6.00
Sum of % SCL + LEG85.00
Sum of % D-HERB + M-HERB (ZONAL HERB)81.54

Vegetation types

No vegetation types.

EuroVegMap information

Title

East Transcaucasian thorn-cushion vegetation (Astragalus caucasicus, Astragalus microcephalus, Acantholimon lepturoides, Acantholimon fominii) and tomillares (Salvia garedji, Thymus tiflisiensis, Thymus karamarjanicus)

Geographical distribution

Country/territory
Georgia: sporadically in the southern part of the highlands Iori (Iori-Šeki); Azerbaijan: in the east at the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus, border to Georgia
area covered
490 km²
area frequency
8 polygons.

Scientific names of main plant communities and their most common synonyms (with author citation)

Astragaleta caucasici (Astragalus caucasicus+Festuca valesiaca-ass., Astragalus caucasicus+Artemisia caucasica-ass.) Grossgejm & Sachokia 1931.

Structural feature of the main community(ies) (layers, life-forms, etc.)

The thorn-cushion vegetation is dominated by Astragalus microcephalus (Transcaucasian-Anatolian-Iranian-Kopet-Daghestanian species; 60 cm tall), Astragalus caucasicus (central-east Transcaucasian endemic; 30-40 cm tall) and Onobrychis cornuta. Dwarf semishrubs of the genuses Thymus, Stachys, Teucrium, Artemisia are also frequent; Acantholimon communities with Acantholimon lepturoides, Acantholimon fominii. Tomillares with Salvia garedji, Thymus tiflisiensis, Thymus karamarjanicus as well as Bothriochloa ischaemum, the dwarf semishrubs Scutellaria orientalis, Teucrium orientale as well as the hemicryptophyte Astragalus cyri.

Dominant and most frequent species in different layers

Tree layer
---
Shrub layer
thorny dwarf shrubs: Astragalus caucasicus, Astragalus microcephalus, Acantholimon lepturoides, Acantholimon fominii, Acantholimon schemachense, Onobrychis cornuta
Lianas
---
Herb layer
Onobrychis kachetica, Salvia garedji, Thymus tiflisiensis, Thymus karamarjanicus, Thymus collinus, Scutellaria orientalis, Stachys lavandulifolia, Teucrium orientale, Teucrium capitatum, Artemisia chamaemelifolia, Artemisia caucasica, Astragalus xiphidium, Astragalus stevenianus, Stachys fruticulosa, Matthiola odoratissima, Centaurea carthalinica, Hedysarum ibericum, Onosma sericea, Gypsophila szovitsii, Scorzonera biebersteinii, Helichrysum-species, Bothriochloa ischaemum, Festuca valesiaca, Stipa spp., Allium fuscoviolaceum, Iris caucasica, Ziziphora capitata
Moss layer (incl. lichens)
No details

Diagnostically important species

Astragalus caucasicus, Astragalus microcephalus, Acantholimon lepturoides, Acantholimon fominii, Salvia garedji, Thymus tiflisiensis, Thymus karamarjanicus

Ecological variants

---

Geographical variants (geogr. differential species)

In the western variant with Centaurea carthalinica.

Natural accompanying vegetation (most important units in complex with the name giving mapping unit, scientific names)

Juniper open forests, xerophytic scrub (Rhamnus pallasii, Juniperus communis subsp. oblonga, Cotoneaster integerrimus, Ephedra procera), steppes.

Adjoining climax and permanent vegetation (with numbers of mapping units)

open juniper woodlands (K33), steppes (M11), deserts (O7, O8, O9), salt vegetation (P36), alluvial forests (U22).

Land use, substitute communities

forestry (substitute communities, plantations of economic tree-species, scrub)
---
grassland (meadows, pastures, herb-rich communities)
Extensive pastures.
arable land (characteristic weed communities)
---
settlements (typical ruderal vegetation)
---

Site conditions of the mapping unit

Landscape type, geomorphology
low end of mountain range: stony slopes in the Jori region, rocky mountain chains and south exposed slopes in the east
Altitudinal belt and/or altitudinal range
submontane, montane; 450‑800(950)m
Geology (bedrock)
sandstone and conglomerates (Tertiary)
Soil conditions
soil type, also the depth of fine textured earth (soil), stone content; (international nomenclature)
stone-rich, partly not much developed soils; (rendzic leptosols; haplic kastanozems)
soil texture
loamy, grouany to stony
soil moisture, water balance
dry
soil reaction
acidic, weakly acidic
soil fertility
oligotrophic, oligo-mesotrophic
Climate incl. local climate
climate type (following Walter & Lieth)
VI(IV)
average annual temperature
9-13 °C
average annual precipitation
300-500 mm
average temperature of the warmest month
July 20-25 °C
average temperature of the coldest month
(-6) -4 to 0 °C
local climate or other climatic peculiarities
dry-warm, continental climate.

Importance for nature protection

Present state and development trend of natural vegetation (degree of endangerment)
Near-natural stands are still on the decrease and rare, and as such are extremely worthy of protection.
endangered communities, species worthy of protection in natural vegetation
All endemic species are worthy of protection: Astragalus caucasicus, Salvia garedji, Hedysarum ibericum among others.
causes of endangerment
Intensive grazing, fire.
required measures for protection and restitution
Cessation of exploitation to allow natural regeneration in selected areas and establishment of nature reserves.

Localities of representative stands (loci typici) with state of protection

of the natural vegetation
Georgia: nature reserve Vashlorani in the south-east of Iori highlands.
of characteristic substitute communities worthy of protection
---

Most important references (author, year)

Grossgejm & Sachokia 1931; Kecchoveli 1960; Troickij 1930

Compiled by

Z. Neuhäuslová based on documents by M. Ivanišvili

Taxons

Taxon
CONIF
BLD
BLE
SCL
LEG
ZONPALM
ARBFERN
D-HERB
M-HERB
AZONAL WOODY
AZONAL NON-WOODY
AQUATIC
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
1.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
1.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
1.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.70
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.70
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.40
M-HERB
0.60
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.70
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.70
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.50
M-HERB
0.50
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.50
M-HERB
0.50
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.50
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.20
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.60
M-HERB
0.40
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.40
M-HERB
0.60
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.90
M-HERB
0.10
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.10
M-HERB
0.60
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.30
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.70
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.60
M-HERB
0.40
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.60
M-HERB
0.40
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.40
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.60
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.70
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.70
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.50
M-HERB
0.50
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.70
M-HERB
0.30
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.50
M-HERB
0.50
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.50
M-HERB
0.50
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.40
M-HERB
0.60
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
1.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.60
M-HERB
0.40
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.50
M-HERB
0.50
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.50
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.50
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.50
M-HERB
0.50
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.40
LEG
0.60
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.00
M-HERB
0.00
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00
CONIF
0.00
BLD
0.00
BLE
0.00
SCL
0.00
LEG
0.00
ZONPALM
0.00
ARBFERN
0.00
D-HERB
0.60
M-HERB
0.40
AZONAL WOODY
0.00
AZONAL NON-WOODY
0.00
AQUATIC
0.00
PROBLEMATIC TAXA
0.00